Group: Andrew, Carlos, Lucas
1. What Image File Formats should be used for web pages, why (how does compression affect loading)? When choosing image file formats during the web design process the goal is to maintain the highest level of quality and the lowest file size possible. There are 3 main file types that are supported by web browsers and commonly used by web developers and they are JPEG, GIF and PNG. Compression is the main thing distinguishing between the three types; JPEG utilizes a “lossy” compression in which information/data is lost during the process using algorithms to describe 8×8 pixel blocks, designed to fool the eye in representing the image. The benefits to this method are small files with a full range of color. GIF and PNG files use “lossless” compression where no information/data is lost and the entire file is represented as is, this provides the highest quality but also largest file size. Compression affects load times as the larger the file, the longer it will take to load and being that the goal is to have low load times, compression is a useful tool in maximizing a website. Overall it depends on the type of image being loaded; if the image is mainly solid colors and text it is best to use GIF/PNG and just limit the colors to only what is necessary (ex: 256 colors only), reducing the file size and maximizing quality. If a photograph is being used it is best to use JPEG as it will provide a larger color spectrum and will be difficult to notice by the user.
2. How do you optimize images for the web? For general use/loading purposes and SEO purposes, it is important to optimize the images on any webpage to follow certain criteria for max efficiency. A) Creating a good title + file name for the image – Although not seen by google and will have little effect on SEO, it is still important to have a good title for the image as users are often able to see image titles by simply moving the cursor over the image and also when clicking on the images which in turn creates a good opportunity to embellish keywords. Also in the development stages, a good file name will aid in file organization and simplicity in coding. B) Creating efficient “Alt Tags” for the image, which are tags that search engines such as Google read to help in the indexing process of a webpage. Using specific keywords for this helps SEO. Alt tags are also displayed on web pages when images are unable to render. C) Adding good captions is also essential as they provide further insight to what the user is looking at and allow the web designer to add text attributes to the bottom of their image which can be used to include keywords, etc. D) Keep images small and utilize the correct file types for the different types of images (see #1). This allows for quicker load times at the highest level of web-quality image.
3. What tricks and tips can you use to make your webpage load faster? There are several approaches that can be used in order to speed up how a webpage is loaded. Here’s a couple of major ones: Optimizing images and file sizes (see above #1+2), Enable PHP caching (This will command the browser to load the website once and save all the images and data for later use, making the user only fully load the site once), Utilize CSS and keep those files small (With your styles in an external .css file, the browser can cache all the formatting and stylizing for your pages instead of having to read each and every single tag all over again), break up large pages into several small pages (less loading in small intervals) and lastly removing any attributes that are un needed and clear all “whitespace” within the site’s code/keep code clean.
4. How can you use images in css, show us examples? CSS allows web developers to use images in more efficient ways by using whats known as “CSS Image Sprites”. An image sprite is a collection of images put into a single image allowing the site to only need to load one file for multiple page images. A web page with many images can take a long time to load and generates multiple server requests, using image sprites will reduce the number of server requests needed to load a page. Using the CSS code, developers are able to command the page to load certain aspects/areas of the image allowing for multiple uses. An example of this is known as the “hover effect” where users move the cursor above an image and it darkens demonstrating that it is a clickable item. Heres an example of this:
Apple uses CSS sprites to trigger when certain images within this larger image which is used for their menu bar. The “hover effect” is used here to indicate where to click in order to enter other webpages, acting as an index for more content. Here’s another example of the functionality of the CSS Image sprite:
This is an image of a spread that is accessible during gameplay where specific parts of the image are accessed when needed. These principles were adapted from gameplay and applied to internet browsing. Overall it provides a quick, efficient way to load high quality images without the need to load individual files.
5. How To Add a YouTube Video to Your Web Site and video in html5? First, to add a youtube video to a site is as simple as going to the particular video’s youtube link/page and move the cursor to the bottom of the video over the “Share” icon. Click on this icon and there are a few options that become available – click the “Embed” button and HTML code will appear bellow with customizability options, customize then copy the code and paste it into the site’s code. In order to simply add a video in HTML 5 from your own media library, first you must have the file within the folder you are currently within on the site’s hierarchy, then include this code:
<video width=”320″ height=”240″ controls>
<source src=”movie.mp4″ type=”video/mp4″>
<source src=”movie.ogg” type=”video/ogg”>
Your browser does not support the video tag.
This text: “Your browser does not support the video tag.” is useful as it will display when users are unable to view the content.
6. How do you optimize video for the web and incorporate it in your web page? Web video is an amazing form of new media as it allows people to get a visual aspect of what ever elements are trying to be conveyed or illustrated. Incorporating video into your web page is a good way to add variety to your content adding more than just text. However there are different ways of incorporating video as well as there are different types of video to incorporate into a web page. For example you can have user-oriented video using:
7. How do you optimize audio for the web and incorporate it in your web page? Web audio is also a great form of new media to incorporate to a web page cause again it adds a element of variety in terms of media used. There are several things you can do to optimize audio in your web page either allowing the user navigating the website to incorporate their own audio using the html command:
<input type=”file” accept=”audio/*;capture=microphone”>
you can also embed a audio file of your choice using the html command:
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